Origin Of Ice Hockey

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Pondhockey - the origin of Ice Hockey! Aktualisiere deine Cookie-Einstellungen, um diesen Inhalt sehen zu können. Cookie Einstellungen. The development of ice hockey was further spurred on by the opening of an indoor rink in Berlin, the Berliner Eispalast, in The facility played host to the​. ↑ Earl Zukerman: McGill's contribution to the origins of ice hockey. McGill Athletic​, März , archiviert vom Original am März ; abgerufen am Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für origin ice hockey. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. On the Origin of Hockey | Gidén, Carl, Houda, Patrick, Martel, Jean-Patrice discussed and debated for years about the origins of the game of ice hockey.

Origin Of Ice Hockey

On the Origin of Hockey | Gidén, Carl, Houda, Patrick, Martel, Jean-Patrice discussed and debated for years about the origins of the game of ice hockey. Swiss Ice Hockey Federation mit allen Nationalteams vertraut seit dem Jahr auf den Ernährungspartner SPONSER SPORT FOOD. SPONSER liefert. Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für origin ice hockey. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. The Great 30's Depression had hit in both Canada and the U. After practicing for about a month, Creighton staged a public exhibition of the sport on March 3, The only radical rule change adopted by the NHA was to Play Pearls the number of players on a side to six, and that move was made to save money. By that time, at least two books had been published containing instructions for playing bandy or hockey — Book Of Ra Kostenlos Spiele two terms being considered interchangeable at the time — and indicating that it could be played on ice with skates. Rigidity also improves the overall manoeuvrability of the skate. Origin Of Ice Hockey Great news. Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? This is the status of countries that have no independent hockey management association in a given country or have such associations if they do not appear in World Majong Alchemie competitions. Die Spieler gestern Abend waren achtzehn an der Zahl -- neun auf jeder Seite -- und waren wie folgt: -- Messrs. In the next two years Colombia won the tournament by beating Mexico. Marken sind Eigentum ihrer jeweiligen Inhaber. Growing up in Canada I was a huge Spiele Gratis Online fan, Win Some Money it wasn't until the summit series and the Canada Cup that I became a big fan of international hockey. Sports Eng. VK Russia. Zurück zum Zitat Y. Contact Us Email nationalteamsoficehockey gmail. Zurück zum Zitat G. Greenwald, A. Beteiligt waren zwei Mannschaften mit je neun Spielern. The Puck Starts Here: The Origin of Canada's Great Winter Game: Ice Hockey | Vaughan, Garth, McFarlane, Brian | ISBN: | Kostenloser. The origin of ice skates dates back several thousand years, but the game of hockey didn't originate until the We offer the best hockey skates for all levels of​. History of hockey in Europe, tournaments, teams and players. All you need to know about hockey and ice hockey. Hockey is often played at schools in the UK but its origins are unclear. Later came ice hockey, which developed in Canada. This is a very. 31, against the Montreal Hockey Club, formed from the Montreal Football Club which is now acclaimed by the International Ice Hockey Federation for.

The Portage Lake squad was exceptionally good, beating most opponents over the next two years. This was helped by the fact that Gibson had been recruiting Canadian stars to come play for the team, offering to pay them.

The success of the two game series - called the World Championship - led Dee and Gibson to form the International Hockey League, the first professional hockey league.

Marie, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Canada. As the league experienced early success, players from Canada swarmed over the border, drawn by the prospect of being paid to play hockey.

Canadian hockey finally responded with the creation of the Ontario Professional Hockey League in , which helped persuade some Canadian stars to cross back over the border.

In the other Canadian hockey leagues, players were now being paid quietly, drawing even more back to the country, and between the Canadian hockey leagues now paying their talent and a recession, the International Hockey League folded in Doran and the rest of the owners.

The others owners folded the league only to start a new one, the Canadian Hockey Association, shutting out Doran. As a result, Doran's Montreal Wanderers formed a new league of their own, the National Hockey Association, with small town teams from Haileybury, Cobalt and Renfrew, while adding a new team by forming the Montreal Canadiens, an all French-Canadian team.

The biggest star of the new league and its wealthiest was Fred Taylor, who had played in the IHL before going back to Canada to play for the Ottawa Senators.

At the time, that salary was more than double that of the Canadian prime minister. However, the pricey players spelled trouble for the league, and the NHA by was suffering heavily in financial terms, with small town teams Renfrew, Cobalt and Haileybury all dropping out, and two Toronto teams taking their place.

Hockey had never really caught on on the west coast of Canada, primarily because there was so little natural ice that formed.

The Patricks solved this problem by building the Vancouver Arena, the world's largest artificial ice arena which had previously been Madison Square Garden in New York.

The first pro hockey game ever played west of Ontario and Michigan was in , and the Patrick brothers had made it possible by ensuring they lured players west with plenty of money, poaching many from the NHA.

The Patricks had created a truly international league. In , the Portland team became the first American team to play for the Stanley Cup, losing to the Canadiens in a five-game series, and the next year, the Seattle Metropolitans became the first American team to win the Stanley Cup.

In , the Patricks debuted numbered uniforms and allowed goalies to drop to their feet in order to make saves. The next year, they came up with the concept of zoned hockey, creating the blue lines, and allowed forward passing in those zones.

As Canada entered the war it was still under British control, and went to war when the U. However, play went on, and new teams started to pop up - soldier teams.

Units put together teams made up of their soldiers, and exhibitions were often played, some of them earning nice profits for the soldiers. That caught the attention of the NHA, who put together a team from the th battalion and made them a member of the NHA during the war.

Before the war, women in Canada could neither vote nor own property; once the war began and women went to work, those things changed. And although women had been playing hockey almost since the sport began, the war gave women's hockey a far bigger spotlight, and they flourished, with some rumors circulating that the pro men's leagues were even going to consider signing some of the top female stars.

While that never came to fruition, it underlined the quality of the women's play. They would go on to win more Stanley Cup than any hockey team in history.

Yet, that first victory was overshadowed by severely low attendance figures; the war hurt hockey greatly, primarily in the pocketbook.

However, when the Canadiens travelled to Seattle to play the Stanley Cup the next year, with the Metros taking the Cup, it helped revive some interest in the sport, and as the world exited from world war, hockey recovered.

Ironically, however, the only Stanley Cup series ever cancelled after a full season had been played came just a year after the war ended, when, in , the series was shut down due to the flu epidemic.

Though world hockey had been around for the vast majority of the 20 th century, its quality was not very high. Canada and the U.

Though the Olympics that year were not well attended - held in Antwerp, the majority of the public could not put together enough money to attend - hockey was a huge draw, with the Canadians winning handily.

In response, Livingstone transferred ownership of his team to a Toronto arena ownership group; when the Quebec Bulldogs had to shut down, the other owners allowed Toronto into the fold of their new league, the National Hockey League NHL.

The NHL, after its first season, quickly moved to become the premier professional league in hockey, naming itself pro hockey's governing body.

Patricks Livingstone's old team and the Ottawa Senators. The NHL, wanting to branch out to the U. The Americans debuted at the newly built Madison Square Garden which replaced its predecessor in After two years, the new league the Western Hockey League finally folded, and the Patrick brothers sold off their two remaining teams to owners from Detroit and Chicago.

The NHL had truly taken form, and established itself as the premier pro hockey league in the world. The NHL also added more trophies to its case, awarding them each year.

After the WHL folded, the Prince of Wales trophy was presented to the regular season champion, while the Stanley Cup was given to the playoff champs.

Years later, in the '60s, when the league expanded, the Wales trophy would play a different role. David Hart, father of Cecil Hart, who managed the Canadiens to three Stanley Cup wins, donated a trophy to the league to be awarded to the player considered most valuable to his team.

Its first winner was Frank Nighbor of the Ottawa Senators. Nighbor also received the first Lady Byng Trophy.

In , Lady Byng, wife of Canada's governor general, invited Nighbor to dinner, impressed by his play. After asking Nighbor if he thought the NHL would accept the trophy to be awarded to the most gentlemanly player and Nighbor answered that he thought the NHL would , Lady Byng awarded the trophy to Nighbor.

The award is still given today to the player who shows the most sportsmanship, again as chosen by the PHWA.

Georges Vezina, who had played goaltender for the Montreal Canadiens for years, collapsed on the ice in the season, suffering from tuberculosis.

He died a year later. At the end of the ''27 season, Leo Dandurand, Louis Letourneau and Joe Cattarinich, owners of the Montreal Canadiens, gave the trophy to the league, awarding it to the goalie of the team with the fewest goals against it.

In , the Vezina was changed, awarded instead to the goaltender considered to be the best in the league as determined by the PHWA. With that money, and by gathering other investors, Smythe bought the Toronto St.

Patricks, renaming them the Toronto Maple Leafs. Smythe also built a new arena in Toronto, vowing to win the Stanley Cup within five years.

Though he had some initial success with the fans, he needed a star player as well; he found him in Frank Clancy. Clancy was a huge star in hockey, and when the cash-strapped Ottawa Senators put him up for sale, Smythe put together the money to sign him by putting his race horse, at odds, in a single race, winning the money necessary to ink Clancy.

The Great 30's Depression had hit in both Canada and the U. The Philadelphia Quakers who had been the Pittsburgh franchise suspended operations for a year in , but never returned.

The Ottawa Senators did the same that year, returning for the season, but in moved to St. That franchise only lasted one season, then folded.

The Montreal Maroons, who had shared hockey's capital with the Canadiens for years, went out of business in Many hockey players also left Canada and the U.

The exodus that resulted from the Depression helped raise the level of play in international hockey as many of the players shared their hockey knowledge with the locals in Europe.

However, unlike before, public outcry eventually worked against them. As most of the military teams stayed at home for the early part of the war, the public thought it outrageous that hockey players essentially got deferments.

The military responded by almost immediately sending the soldier teams to war. Still, many enlisted players never had to fight overseas; the Montreal Canadiens in particular largely escaped the conflict because of a loophole in the system, which allowed them to stay home if their jobs were considered essential to the war effort.

The Toronto Maple Leafs would have mostly done the same had Conn Smythe not been so devoted to the military. With the Canadiens able to stay at home, they dominated the early part of the s in hockey.

This domination was helped by the addition of a young player from Montreal named Maurice Richard. The man who eventually earned the nickname "Rocket" was a scoring machine: in the Stanley Cup Finals, Rocket Richard scored five goals…in one game, including three in the first period alone known as a natural hat trick.

The next year, Richard would become the first player to score 50 goals in 50 games, a record that would stand for over 30 years. Richard would go on to be the first NHL player to record goals in a career.

The brainchild of NY Rangers coach Frank Boucher and Boston Bruins coach Art Ross, the red line, which divides the rink in half, was put in place so players could now pass the puck out of their own zone which had previously been illegal.

This helped open up scoring: scoring averages went from 2. In that same season, ''47, the NHL increased the regular season from 50 to 60 games.

Just three years later, in the ''50 season, the number of games would again go up, this time to That number would not change again until expansion hit the league.

That changed in the last three years of the '40s, when Toronto won three straight, and four times in five years winning in '45 and '' Their opponents in the last two Stanley Cup victories were the Detroit Red Wings, a sign of things to come.

In the first year of the new decade, the Red Wings took home the Stanley Cup, and would go on to dominate the first half of the s.

Of the first six Stanley Cup finals in the '50s, the Red Wings would win four of them. The Winged Wheelmen were led by Gordie Howe, a brilliant hockey player who began his career in the NHL in the season, and would go on to play professional hockey for 31 more season, spanning four decades.

Nicknamed "Mr. Hockey," Howe won six Art Ross trophies, six Hart Trophies and when he retired held the records for goals and points, considered by many to be the greatest hockey player of all time before Gretzky came along, anyway.

However, the rest of the decade belonged to the Habs their nickname, short for "Les Habitants". This has led some to argue that Deline, in the Northwest Territories , was the birthplace of hockey in Canada.

It is unlikely, therefore, that this was the first game of ice hockey. There is also evidence that in , games of ice hockey were played by British soldiers on Chippewa Creek in the Niagara region although this evidence only came to light in Hockey was also played in Kingston , Ontario, in Sir Arthur Freeling, then a first lieutenant stationed in Kingston, organized games for his men and wrote about them in his diary.

Like Franklin and Levinge, Freeling was a British officer who would have learned the game in his home country.

Freeling was recalled to England in , and it would be a few decades before ice hockey was played again in Kingston.

Despite this, Kingston was long held to be the birthplace of ice hockey, owing in large part to efforts by Captain James T.

The decision was later rescinded, and the Hall opened in Toronto. While few reports of specific games exist, there is also no doubt that ice hockey was played on a regular basis in Halifax and Dartmouth , Nova Scotia, prior to It is therefore clear that games resembling ice hockey were played in Canada in the 19th century, likely brought to the country by settlers or military personnel from the British Isles.

On that date, the Montreal Gazette made the following announcement:. Good fun may be expected, as some of the players are reputed to be exceedingly expert at the game.

Some fears have been expressed on the part of intending spectators that accidents were likely to occur through the ball flying about in too lively a manner, to the imminent danger of lookers on, but we understand that the game will be played with a flat circular piece of wood, thus preventing all danger of its leaving the surface of the ice.

Subscribers will be admitted on presentation of their tickets. The game, played between two teams of nine players, ended in a 2—1 win for the team captained by James George Aylwin Creighton originally from Nova Scotia over the team captained by Charles Edward Torrance.

He is credited with organizing the first recorded indoor ice hockey match at Montreal, Quebec, Canada in He helped popularize the sport in Montreal and later in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada after he moved to Ottawa in where he served for 48 years as the Law Clerk to the Canadian Senate.

Photo dated March in Ottawa, Ontario. In , the IIHF officially recognized this as the first game of organized ice hockey. Was this truly the first organized ice hockey game?

It is likely the rules originated with members of the local British garrison, who would have been using English hockey rules. However, this ignores the use of bungs in England that began in the midth century.

Newspaper reports include a list of all the players but did not provide the identity of the goal scorers, the duration of the game, or whether there was a referee or umpire, or goalies.

It is also known that the players were not wearing uniforms. In contrast, there exist a few detailed reports of games of ice hockey or bandy from English newspapers in the early s, which often included the names of goal scorers, and, in at least one case, even the times of the goals.

These were clearly well-organized matches. Another exhibition game was played two weeks later, this time with uniforms.

The identity of the teams was also more specific, with the Montreal Football Club wearing its usual colours facing a team from the Victoria Skating Club.

Several of the original English field hockey rules had been directly adapted from English football soccer rules.

The offside rule, for example, was exactly the same — and not inspired by rugby , as is often claimed. Other rules also came from football, including rules against carrying the ball and how to put the ball back in play after it had gone out of bounds the rule being different depending on whether it went off to the side or behind the goal line.

The Montreal version also omitted several HA rules, notably those describing the stick, how goals were scored, the size of the field and the number of players on each side.

Canadians also brought back the flat disc that had been adopted in the midth century when the word "hockey" itself came into use. Soft rubber balls lasted longer than cork bungs and were also less damaging to shins and ankles than wood, the traditional material of bandy balls.

Canadians made other significant rule changes early on. In , for example, the number of players was reduced from nine to seven.

New techniques and styles of play also arose organically as the game grew and organized leagues proliferated. The Coloured Hockey League of the Maritimes — is credited with the birth of two key innovations.

Because CHL games were played with no official rules other than the Bible, the result was a more physical and innovative style of hockey.

The first truly competitive ice hockey games were played on 26 and 27 January , when three teams competed in the first edition of the Montreal Winter Carnival hockey tournament.

Over the following six years, four more Carnival ice hockey tournaments were held. In , the Carnival was cancelled due to a smallpox epidemic.

A replacement tournament was held in Burlington, Vermont, featuring two Montreal teams and a local team, making it the first international ice hockey tournament.

The same winter, four Montreal-area teams organized a season-long tournament in the city. In , owners locked out players, insisting that they accept a salary cap that would slow the rapid growth of payroll costs.

The league resumed play in —06 after the owners ultimately prevailed, and the NHL became the last of the major North American team-sport leagues to institute a salary cap.

The regular season consists of 82 games and determines the 16 teams that will qualify for the play-offs. The play-off winner is awarded the Stanley Cup.

Selke Trophy, for the best defensive forward; the Jack Adams Award, for the coach of the year; the Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy, for the player who best exemplifies sportsmanship, perseverance, and dedication to hockey; and the Lester Patrick Trophy, for outstanding service to U.

For much of the 20th century, amateur athletes dominated international competition. League competition among amateurs in England began in The first European championship was held at Avants, Switzerland, in , with Great Britain the winner.

From that time the federation broadened its membership, taking applicants from the world over. Canada, which also won at the first Olympic Winter Games in , dominated international competition until the emergence of the Soviet team in the early s.

Origin Of Ice Hockey Video

Let's Talk About Hockey (Origins \u0026 Game Play)

Origin Of Ice Hockey ÖFFNUNGSZEITEN

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Origin Of Ice Hockey Video

Black Ice - CHL Colored Hockey League, Nova Scotia

Although the decision had little effect on the world tournament , the Winter Games competition underwent numerous changes. Given the high visibility of professional players and their skills, selection to the Canadian, U.

The six "dream teams" were automatically placed in the final round of eight; the two remaining slots were filled by the winners of a qualifying round.

The NHL suspended play for a period of 16 days in so professional players could make their Olympic debut in Nagano , Japan , and it continued to temporarily stop the season for Olympic play thereafter.

Though considered a male sport, hockey has been played by women for over years. The first all-female game was in Barrie, Ontario, Canada, in , and the first world championship was held in Ice hockey.

Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Compared to athletes who play other sports, ice hockey players are at higher risk of overuse injuries and injuries caused by early sports specialization by teenagers.

According to the Hughston Health Alert, "Lacerations to the head, scalp, and face are the most frequent types of injury [in hockey].

One of the leading causes of head injury is body checking from behind. Due to the danger of delivering a check from behind, many leagues, including the NHL have made this a major and game misconduct penalty called "boarding".

Another type of check that accounts for many of the player-to-player contact concussions is a check to the head resulting in a misconduct penalty called "head contact".

A check to the head can be defined as delivering a hit while the receiving player's head is down and their waist is bent and the aggressor is targeting the opponent player's head.

The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. Most concussions occur during player-to-player contact rather than when a player is checked into the boards.

In recent years, the NHL has implemented new rules which penalize and suspend players for illegal checks to the heads, as well as checks to unsuspecting players.

Concussions that players suffer may go unreported because there is no obvious physical signs if a player is not knocked unconscious.

This can prove to be dangerous if a player decides to return to play without receiving proper medical attention.

Studies show that ice hockey causes Occurrences of death from these injuries are rare. An important defensive tactic is checking—attempting to take the puck from an opponent or to remove the opponent from play.

Stick checking , sweep checking , and poke checking are legal uses of the stick to obtain possession of the puck. The neutral zone trap is designed to isolate the puck carrier in the neutral zone preventing him from entering the offensive zone.

Body checking is using one's shoulder or hip to strike an opponent who has the puck or who is the last to have touched it the last person to have touched the puck is still legally "in possession" of it, although a penalty is generally called if he is checked more than two seconds after his last touch.

Body checking is also a penalty in certain leagues in order to reduce the chance of injury to players. Often the term checking is used to refer to body checking, with its true definition generally only propagated among fans of the game.

Offensive tactics include improving a team's position on the ice by advancing the puck out of one's zone towards the opponent's zone, progressively by gaining lines, first your own blue line, then the red line and finally the opponent's blue line.

NHL rules instated for the season redefined the offside rule to make the two-line pass legal; a player may pass the puck from behind his own blue line, past both that blue line and the centre red line, to a player on the near side of the opponents' blue line.

Offensive tactics are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. When a player purposely directs the puck towards the opponent's goal, he or she is said to "shoot" the puck.

A deflection is a shot that redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal.

A one-timer is a shot struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions.

Headmanning the puck , also known as breaking out , is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the ice. Loafing , also known as cherry-picking , is when a player, usually a forward, skates behind an attacking team, instead of playing defence, in an attempt to create an easy scoring chance.

A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie ; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with an extra attacker on the ice in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal.

However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net.

One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck. Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone.

Forechecking is an important part of the dump and chase strategy i. Each team will use their own unique system but the main ones are: 2—1—2 , 1—2—2, and 1—4.

The 2—1—2 is the most basic forecheck system where two forwards will go in deep and pressure the opposition's defencemen, the third forward stays high and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

The 1—2—2 is a bit more conservative system where one forward pressures the puck carrier and the other two forwards cover the oppositions' wingers, with the two defencemen staying at the blueline.

The 1—4 is the most defensive forecheck system, referred to as the neutral zone trap, where one forward will apply pressure to the puck carrier around the oppositions' blueline and the other 4 players stand basically in a line by their blueline in hopes the opposition will skate into one of them.

Another strategy is the left wing lock , which has two forwards pressure the puck and the left wing and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Cycling moves the puck along the boards in the offensive zone to create a scoring chance by making defenders tired or moving them out of position.

Pinching is when a defenceman pressures the opposition's winger in the offensive zone when they are breaking out, attempting to stop their attack and keep the puck in the offensive zone.

A saucer pass is a pass used when an opposition's stick or body is in the passing lane. It is the act of raising the puck over the obstruction and having it land on a teammate's stick.

A deke , short for "decoy", is a feint with the body or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Many modern players, such as Pavel Datsyuk , Sidney Crosby and Patrick Kane , have picked up the skill of "dangling", which is fancier deking and requires more stick handling skills.

Although fighting is officially prohibited in the rules, it is not an uncommon occurrence at the professional level, and its prevalence has been both a target of criticism and a considerable draw for the sport.

At the professional level in North America fights are unofficially condoned. Enforcers and other players fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores.

A fight will also break out if one of the team's skilled players gets hit hard or someone receives what the team perceives as a dirty hit.

The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a minute misconduct penalty NCAA and some Junior leagues or a game misconduct penalty and suspension high school and younger, as well as some casual adult leagues.

Ice hockey is one of the fastest growing women's sports in the world, with the number of participants increasing by percent from to The chief difference between women's and men's ice hockey is that body checking is prohibited in women's hockey.

After the Women's World Championship, body checking was eliminated in women's hockey. In current IIHF women's competition, body checking is either a minor or major penalty , decided at the referee's discretion.

In Canada, to some extent ringette has served as the female counterpart to ice hockey, in the sense that traditionally, boys have played hockey while girls have played ringette.

Women are known to have played the game in the 19th century. Several games were recorded in the s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The women of Lord Stanley's family were known to participate in the game of ice hockey on the outdoor ice rink at Rideau Hall , the residence of Canada's Governor-General.

The game developed at first without an organizing body. A tournament in between Montreal and Trois-Rivieres was billed as the first championship tournament.

Several tournaments, such as at the Banff Winter Carnival, were held in the early 20th century and numerous women's teams such as the Seattle Vamps and Vancouver Amazons existed.

Starting in the s, the game spread to universities. Today, the sport is played from youth through adult leagues, and in the universities of North America and internationally.

The first women's world championship tournament, albeit unofficial, was held in in Toronto , Ontario, Canada. Women's ice hockey was added as a medal sport at the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

The United States won the gold, Canada won the silver and Finland won the bronze medal. Louis Blues. With interest in women's ice hockey growing, between and the number of registered female players worldwide grew from , to , The future of international women's ice hockey was discussed at the World Hockey Summit in , and IIHF member associations could work together.

She stated the European players were talented, but their respective national team programs were not given the same level of support as the European men's national teams, or the North American women's national teams.

The CWHL was founded in and originally consisted of seven teams in Canada, but had several membership changes including adding a team in the United States in When the league launched, its players were only compensated for travel and equipment.

The league began paying its players a stipend in the —18 season when the league launched its first teams in China.

The league expanded to five teams in with the addition of the formerly independent Minnesota Whitecaps. On April 22, , the NWHL officially announced that Toronto was awarded an expansion team for the —21 season growing the league to six teams.

The NHL is by far the best attended and most popular ice hockey league in the world, and is among the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.

The league's history began after Canada's National Hockey Association decided to disband in ; the result was the creation of the National Hockey League with four teams.

The league expanded to the United States beginning in and had as many as 10 teams before contracting to six teams by — In , the NHL doubled in size to 12 teams, undertaking one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history.

A few years later, in , a new team league, the World Hockey Association WHA was formed and due to its ensuing rivalry with the NHL, it caused an escalation in players salaries.

It comprises 31 teams from the United States and Canada. U Sports ice hockey is the highest level of play at the Canadian university level under the auspices of U Sports, Canada's governing body for university sports.

As these players compete at the university level, they are obligated to follow the rule of standard eligibility of five years.

The American Collegiate Hockey Association is composed of college teams at the club level. It attracts players from Canada, the United States and Europe.

The major junior players are considered amateurs as they are under years-old and not paid a salary, however, they do get a stipend and play a schedule similar to a professional league.

Typically, the NHL drafts many players directly from the major junior leagues. Players in this league are also amateur with players required to be under years old, but do not get a stipend, which allows players to retain their eligibility for participation in NCAA ice hockey.

The league is the direct successor to the Russian Super League , which in turn was the successor to the Soviet League , the history of which dates back to the Soviet adoption of ice hockey in the s.

The KHL was launched in with clubs predominantly from Russia, but featuring teams from other post-Soviet states. The league expanded beyond the former Soviet countries beginning in the —12 season , with clubs in Croatia and Slovakia.

This league features 24 teams from Russia and 2 from Kazakhstan. The third division is the Russian Hockey League , which features only teams from Russia.

It features 32 teams from post-Soviet states, predominantly Russia. Several countries in Europe have their own top professional senior leagues.

Beginning in the —15 season, the Champions Hockey League was launched, a league consisting of first-tier teams from several European countries, running parallel to the teams' domestic leagues.

The competition is meant to serve as a Europe-wide ice hockey club championship. The competition is a direct successor to the European Trophy and is related to the —09 tournament of the same name.

There are also several annual tournaments for clubs, held outside of league play. One of the oldest international ice hockey competition for clubs is the Spengler Cup , held every year in Davos , Switzerland, between Christmas and New Year's Day.

The Memorial Cup , a competition for junior-level age 20 and under clubs is held annually from a pool of junior championship teams in Canada and the United States.

The World Junior Club Cup is an annual tournament of junior ice hockey clubs representing each of the top junior leagues. As of , the two top teams of the previous season from each league compete in the Trans-Tasman Champions League.

Ice hockey in Africa is a small but growing sport; while no African ice hockey playing nation has a domestic national leagues, there are several regional leagues in South Africa.

Ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since and was played at the summer games in Hockey is Canada's national winter sport, and Canadians are extremely passionate about the game.

The nation has traditionally done very well at the Olympic games, winning 6 of the first 7 gold medals. However, by its amateur club teams and national teams could not compete with the teams of government-supported players from the Soviet Union.

The USSR won all but two gold medals from to The United States won its first gold medal in On the way to winning the gold medal at the Lake Placid Olympics , amateur US college players defeated the heavily favoured Soviet squad—an event known as the " Miracle on Ice " in the United States.

Restrictions on professional players were fully dropped at the games in Calgary. NHL agreed to participate ten years later.

Teams are selected from the available players by the individual federations, without restriction on amateur or professional status. Since it is held in the spring, the tournament coincides with the annual NHL Stanley Cup playoffs and many of the top players are hence not available to participate in the tournament.

Many of the NHL players who do play in the IIHF tournament come from teams eliminated before the playoffs or in the first round, and federations often hold open spots until the tournament to allow for players to join the tournament after their club team is eliminated.

For many years, the tournament was an amateur-only tournament, but this restriction was removed, beginning in In the spirit of best-versus-best without restrictions on amateur or professional status, the series were followed by five Canada Cup tournaments, played in North America.

The United States won in and Canada won in and Since the initial women's world championships in , there have been fifteen tournaments.

The annual Euro Hockey Tour , an unofficial European championship between the national men's teams of the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia and Sweden have been played since — The attendance record for an ice hockey game was set on December 11, , when the University of Michigan 's men's ice hockey team faced cross-state rival Michigan State in an event billed as " The Big Chill at the Big House ".

The game was played at Michigan's American football venue, Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor , with a capacity of , as of the football season.

When UM stopped sales to the public on May 6, , with plans to reserve remaining tickets for students, over , tickets had been sold for the event.

Guinness World Records , using a count of ticketed fans who actually entered the stadium instead of UM's figure of tickets sold, announced a final figure of , The record was approached but not broken at the NHL Winter Classic , which also held at Michigan Stadium, with the Detroit Red Wings as the home team and the Toronto Maple Leafs as the opposing team with an announced crowd of , Number of registered hockey players, including male, female and junior, provided by the respective countries' federations.

Note that this list only includes the 38 of 81 IIHF member countries with more than 1, registered players as of October Pond hockey is a form of ice hockey played generally as pick-up hockey on lakes, ponds and artificial outdoor rinks during the winter.

Pond hockey is commonly referred to in hockey circles as shinny. Its rules differ from traditional hockey because there is no hitting and very little shooting, placing a greater emphasis on skating, stickhandling and passing abilities.

Sledge hockey is an adaption of ice hockey designed for players who have a physical disability. Players are seated in sleds and use a specialized hockey stick that also helps the player navigate on the ice.

The sport was created in Sweden in the early s, and is played under similar rules to ice hockey. Ice hockey is the official winter sport of Canada.

Ice hockey, partially because of its popularity as a major professional sport, has been a source of inspiration for numerous films, television episodes and songs in North American popular culture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ice hockey disambiguation. The Toronto Maple Leafs white defend their goal against the Washington Capitals red during the first round of the Stanley Cup playoffs.

Main article: Penalty ice hockey. A skater cross-checking his opponent, checking him with the shaft of his stick with two hands. A skater hooking his opponent, using his stick to restrain him.

The following are examples of rule infractions in the sport, and a penalty may be assessed against that player. Main article: Official ice hockey.

Main article: Ice hockey equipment. Main article: Checking ice hockey. Main articles: Shot ice hockey , Slapshot , Wrist shot , Snap shot ice hockey , Backhand slapshot , Offside ice hockey , Extra attacker , and Deke ice hockey.

Main article: Fighting in ice hockey. See also: Canadian women's ice hockey history and History of women's ice hockey in the United States.

Main article: List of ice hockey leagues. Main article: List of ice hockey games with highest attendance. Main article: Pond hockey. Main article: Sledge hockey.

Main article: Ice hockey in popular culture. Ice hockey portal. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved February 24, On the Origin of Hockey.

Guinness World Records. Foedera, conventiones, literae, et cujuscumque generis acta publica, inter reges Angliae, et alios quosvis imperatores, reges, pontifices ab anno Book 3, part 2, p.

Survey of London. Book 1, pp. Sport and the Making of Britain. Manchester University Press. England Hockey. Retrieved May 8, Society for International Hockey Research.

May 17, Retrieved June 2, The Queen's University Journal. Retrieved June 21, Birthplace of Hockey. Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved May 10, From Thomas Raddall to Douglas M.

Fisher, January 25, MS Nova Scotia Legislature. Retrieved August 1, Shinny USA. Retrieved October 16, Retrieved February 5, Hockey Origin Publishing.

July 2, Archived from the original on September 30, The Gazette. Montreal, Quebec. March 3, February 7, On His Own Side of the Puck.

Archived from the original on October 4, Retrieved October 11, A picture of this trophy can be seen at McCord. McCord Museum. December 9, Archived from the original on May 15, RMC Hockey".

Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved February 14, In , naturalist Charles Darwin mentioned hockey in a letter to his son, William Erasmus, who was then away at school.

Hockey was also popular amongst the royal family. As the 19th century progressed, and the game of hockey became more popular in England, it also became increasingly organized.

Yet in most winters it was possible, at least for a few days, to play hockey or bandy on ice. The activity was very popular in some areas, with newspapers reporting the game results as early as — on Saturday, 5 February of that year, the Huntingdon Bedford and Peterborough Gazette reported a bandy game between Colne and Bluntisham, which the former team won.

Then, on 3 February , teams from Swavesey and Over met on Mare Fen for a game of bandy as well as some skating races.

The exact score is not known, but the local newspaper reported that Swavesey won and listed the names of all the players, eleven per side. This indicates a high level of formality in the organization of the game in England by at least the early s.

By that time, at least two books had been published containing instructions for playing bandy or hockey — the two terms being considered interchangeable at the time — and indicating that it could be played on ice with skates.

As in the earlier edition, hockey was still enthusiastically promoted as a winter sport to be practiced with ice skates.

These books clearly predate the rules published by the Montreal Gazette in and should therefore be considered the first sets of rules for ice hockey.

The HA oversaw the practice of field hockey , but its rules were also used in England for ice hockey until , when the National Skating Association published its own set.

In short, by , people were playing ice hockey in England and had developed rules for playing the game. This was part of a long development of the sport in the British Isles, which included games of shinty being played on ice as early as There is clear evidence that the game was being played in Canada in the 19th century, even prior to the famous game played in Montreal on 3 March This is hardly surprising, given that settlers from Great Britain or Ireland would have brought with them their folk games, as would members of the British army and navy who were stationed in Canada.

The claim has been made that Windsor , Nova Scotia , was the birthplace of ice hockey. The passage does not, however, provide much detail as to how the game was played or whether skates were used.

Some of the earliest evidence for ice hockey in Canada was recorded by British officers, who brought the sport with them.

In , for example, researchers discovered two letters written by Sir John Franklin in , during one of his attempts to find the Northwest Passage. This has led some to argue that Deline, in the Northwest Territories , was the birthplace of hockey in Canada.

It is unlikely, therefore, that this was the first game of ice hockey. There is also evidence that in , games of ice hockey were played by British soldiers on Chippewa Creek in the Niagara region although this evidence only came to light in Hockey was also played in Kingston , Ontario, in Sir Arthur Freeling, then a first lieutenant stationed in Kingston, organized games for his men and wrote about them in his diary.

Like Franklin and Levinge, Freeling was a British officer who would have learned the game in his home country. Freeling was recalled to England in , and it would be a few decades before ice hockey was played again in Kingston.

Despite this, Kingston was long held to be the birthplace of ice hockey, owing in large part to efforts by Captain James T.

The decision was later rescinded, and the Hall opened in Toronto. While few reports of specific games exist, there is also no doubt that ice hockey was played on a regular basis in Halifax and Dartmouth , Nova Scotia, prior to It is therefore clear that games resembling ice hockey were played in Canada in the 19th century, likely brought to the country by settlers or military personnel from the British Isles.

On that date, the Montreal Gazette made the following announcement:. Good fun may be expected, as some of the players are reputed to be exceedingly expert at the game.

Some fears have been expressed on the part of intending spectators that accidents were likely to occur through the ball flying about in too lively a manner, to the imminent danger of lookers on, but we understand that the game will be played with a flat circular piece of wood, thus preventing all danger of its leaving the surface of the ice.

Subscribers will be admitted on presentation of their tickets. The game, played between two teams of nine players, ended in a 2—1 win for the team captained by James George Aylwin Creighton originally from Nova Scotia over the team captained by Charles Edward Torrance.

He is credited with organizing the first recorded indoor ice hockey match at Montreal, Quebec, Canada in He helped popularize the sport in Montreal and later in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada after he moved to Ottawa in where he served for 48 years as the Law Clerk to the Canadian Senate.

Photo dated March in Ottawa, Ontario. In , the IIHF officially recognized this as the first game of organized ice hockey.

Was this truly the first organized ice hockey game? It is likely the rules originated with members of the local British garrison, who would have been using English hockey rules.

However, this ignores the use of bungs in England that began in the midth century. Newspaper reports include a list of all the players but did not provide the identity of the goal scorers, the duration of the game, or whether there was a referee or umpire, or goalies.

It is also known that the players were not wearing uniforms.

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